The 5 Whys is an iterative interrogative technique that looks at the cause-and-effect relationships underlying a specific problem. The goal of the technique is to get to the root cause of a problem instead of focusing on the surface.
This technique is a root cause analysis (RCA) technique. RCA is a systematic procedure for identifying the root cause of an issue. The process involves a series of steps: Identify the problem, determine what it is that needs to be changed, and then implement a solution.
You were actually an expert with this technique as a child, yet you threw it away in adulthood. I want you to annoyingly ask “Why?” The 5 Why technique is a powerful (and fun) tool allowing us to peel away the layers of symptoms and get to the core of the problem.
The following video provides a great example of RCA: What is Root Cause Analysis?
The following video provides a great example of the 5 Whys Technique: The 5 Whys - Lean Problem Solving
Miro.com provides a good 3-step template for the 5 Whys technique. You can view the template here: 5 Why Technique